The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

2024-04-22 14:09:00, Kulturë CNA

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

Musical instruments, which are the national treasure of our people, are rich and varied. Most of them, created in ancient times, after being improved, have survived to this day. The presence of images of various musical instruments on objects discovered during archaeological excavations in the region inhabited by Azerbaijan suggests that these instruments have an ancient history.

About 90 musical instruments were used in Azerbaijan. According to the modern classification of sound, they are divided into four groups: strings, wind, percussion and idiophonic instruments.

The traditional folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan are very similar in appearance and have much in common with similar folk musical instruments of Albania, which are also very popular in the country.

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

The most popular stringed musical instruments at present are:

Tar , which Uzeir Gajibekov, a great composer and founder of the art of opera in Azerbaijan, considered "the first of the instruments in terms of frequency of use and "the most valuable and important of the instruments that can expand education oriental music", kamancha, called "the most beautiful of melodic instruments", saz - the "interlocutor" of the poets, of the Ashugs and the oud which was considered the "king", i.e. "king" of all instruments.

Tari, whose body looks like the number eight from above, is divided into two parts - large and small. The instrument has 11 metal strings. The great Azerbaijani poet, Nizami Gianjavi, also mentions it in a number of his works.

The ancient Kamancha , which filled hearts with joy, plunged a person into the world of dreams with a sad and wonderful sound, was an instrument with a single string and a long neck. Now there are four wires. Its sound is reminiscent of a violin.

The evolution of sazi is closely related to the art of ashugs. The first sazes had a short neck and two or three strings. Currently, its deep body is assembled from nine strips of mulberry wood and the neck is made of walnut. According to size, sazi is divided into large (tavar), medium and small. It is an orchestral instrument and a band instrument.

The thin, soft and gentle sound of the canon, placed on the knees of the performer, is reproduced with the help of metal gloves worn in the form of a sheath on the index fingers. This musical instrument was once very widespread in the East, including Azerbaijan.

Oud (a shortened version of "al-ud", i.e. Oud), whose deep and soft sound is produced with the help of an eagle's wing, is considered one of the oldest musical instruments. Until the 10th century, the oud had four strings, later a fifth string was added and each string was doubled to amplify the sound.

Oud in the Middle Ages spread widely throughout Europe and in the XVII-XVIII centuries reached the highest level of development, but gradually began to lose its supremacy, giving way to the violin and the guitar. Only in the countries of the East does it maintain its superiority. The sound of the metal threads (once made of silk) is achieved by the movements of the fingers. Oud, like tar, played a major role in the development of mugham music - one of the main genres of traditional Azerbaijani music.

The zourna is one of the most widespread reed wind instruments. It is a wooden pipe with a mouth and a double tongue. Its sound is heard at celebrations, weddings, sports matches. This musical instrument has at least three thousand years of history.

Nagara is also one of the ancient musical instruments. Azerbaijani nagara does not differ from an ordinary drum, except that when it hits, instead of wooden sticks, they hit it themselves with their hands.

In Nakhichevan there are also "yan-tutek" and "tulum". Tutek belongs to the flute-type wind instruments of Azerbaijan. Tuteku is the oldest popular instrument, with a history of 10-12 thousand years.

The tulum consists of two parts - a leather sack and a cane sack. It is a bagpipe-type wind instrument. They play it by covering the holes with their fingers. Air enters the tulum from a leather bag, which the user blows through a special bone tube. Playing tulum requires special skills.

Dumbek is a percussion instrument whose upper lip resembles a flower pot.

The traditional national musical instruments of Azerbaijan are similar and have elements in common with similar traditional musical instruments of Albania, which are still widely played in this country.

As an example, we can mention the following musical instruments:

Kamancha , a musical instrument widely used in central Albania called qemane.    

 The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania                                                             

Oud, in Albanian known as mandolin, is a musical instrument that is found throughout the territory of Albania.

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

Zourna, in Albanian known as Cyrle, is an instrument of flute origin, common in the Near East, Balkans, Middle East, Caucasus, Anatolia.

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

Tulum , known in Albanian as gajde, something similar to a bagpipe. It has three pipes: the pipe, a hole for the fingers and bass, made of wood or bone, and a bag, usually made of goat or sheepskin.

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

Nagara, the drum in Albanian, with two membranes fixed to the wooden frame of the instrument. It is played with two sticks.

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

Qaval , defi in Albanian, has a membrane on one side of the frame. Very common in Albanian weddings.

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

The tubeleki (qypi) is found in Albanian folk instruments as well. The instrument has a clay frame, which is often decorated with pieces of mirrors. During execution, with the palm of the hands in the center, on the edges of the leather surfaces, individually or both at the same time, along the body, between them, the instrument manages to emit a different sound.

The similarity of folk musical instruments of Azerbaijan and Albania

Borders between countries are not an obstacle for the musical communication of peoples. Music is the only universal language that is known to every human being. Music cannot be grasped, touched, seen, measured as an object... it can only be felt. If politics sometimes divides nations, music and culture in general always unites people./ CNA

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